文章摘要
张建坤,杨红,王春峰,陈锦辉,吴建辉.长江口中华鲟保护区附近海域重金属分布特征及生态风险评价[J].上海海洋大学学报,2020,29(5):720-733
长江口中华鲟保护区附近海域重金属分布特征及生态风险评价
Distribution characteristics and ecological risk assessment of heavy metals in the adjacent sea area of Acipenser sinensis reserve in the Yangtze River Estuary
投稿时间:2020-02-24  修订日期:2020-05-04
DOI:10.12024/jsou.20200202937
中文关键词: 中华鲟保护区  海水及沉积物  重金属  污染评价  潜在生态风险
英文关键词: Acipenser sinensis reserve  seawater and sediment  heavy metals  pollution assessment  ecological risk
基金项目:海洋公益性行业科研经费专项(201205010);长江口中华鲟保护区及附近海域重金属监测项目(D-8006-18-0040)
作者单位E-mail
张建坤 上海海洋大学 海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
杨红 上海海洋大学 海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306 hyang@shou.edu.cn 
王春峰 上海海洋大学 海洋生态与环境学院, 上海 201306  
陈锦辉 上海市水生野生动植物保护研究中心, 上海 200092
上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院, 上海 201306 
 
吴建辉 上海市水生野生动植物保护研究中心, 上海 200092
上海海洋大学 海洋科学学院, 上海 201306 
 
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中文摘要:
      为探究长江口中华鲟保护区附近水域的生态环境,分析了表层海水及沉积物中重金属元素季节变化和空间分布特征,并运用综合污染指数法和潜在生态风险指数法评价重金属污染程度与生态风险等级。结果表明:2018年研究水域海水中重金属Hg、As、Cu、Pb、Cd、Cr和Zn平均浓度为3.852、1.948、6.362、4.542、0.294、6.201和44.56 μg/L,Hg、Cu、Pb和Zn均超出国家一类海水水质标准;沉积物中重金属Hg、As、Cu、Pb、Cd、Cr和Zn平均浓度为0.339、14.815、5.055、3.436、0.133、12.667和75.578 mg/kg,仅Hg超出了海洋沉积物质量一类标准。春夏季表层海水中重金属浓度较高,秋冬季沉积物中重金属浓度较高,这主要与入海径流的季节变化有关。空间分布显示,中华鲟保护区核心区的重金属浓度较高,Hg、As和Zn元素均有明显富集趋势。海水中重金属综合污染指数大于5,处于严重污染水平;沉积物重金属综合污染指数小于5,处于低污染水平。7种重金属元素的潜在生态风险系数强弱为Hg > Cd > As > Cu > Zn > Pb > Cr,除Hg处于很强生态风险水平外,其余元素均处于低生态风险水平,重金属综合潜在生态风险指数处于强风险水平。
英文摘要:
      In order to explore the ecological environment of the sea area near the Acipenser sinensis reserve in the Yangtze River Estuary, the seasonal variation and spatial distribution characteristics of heavy metal elements in surface seawater and sediments were analyzed. The comprehensive pollution index method and potential ecological risk index method were used to evaluate the heavy metal pollution degree and ecological risk grade. The results showed that the average concentrations of heavy metals Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn in seawater in 2018 was 3.852 μg/L, 1.948 μg/L, 6.362 μg/L, 4.542 μg/L, 0.294 μg/L, 6.201 μg/L, 44.56 μg/L, and Hg, Cu, Pb and Zn all exceeded national first-class seawater quality standards; the average concentration of heavy metals Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr and Zn in the sediment is 0.339 mg/kg, 14.815 mg/kg, 5.055 mg/kg, 3.436 mg/kg, 0.133 mg/kg, 12.667 mg/kg, 75.578 mg/kg, only Hg exceeded the quality standards of the first category of marine sediments. The concentrations of heavy metals in the surface seawater are higher in spring and summer, and higher in the sediments in autumn and winter, which is mainly related to the seasonal variation of runoff into the sea.The spatial distribution showed that the concentration of heavy metals in the core area of the Acipenser sinensis reserve was higher, and the Hg, As and Zn elements had an obvious enrichment trend. The comprehensive pollution index of heavy metals in seawater is greater than 5, which is at a serious pollution level, while the comprehensive pollution index of sediments is less than 5, which is at a low pollution level. The potential ecological risk coefficients of seven heavy metals are Hg > Cd > As > Cu > Zn >Pb> Cr. Except that Hg is at a very strong level of ecological risk, the other elements are at a low level of ecological risk. The comprehensive potential ecological risk index of heavy metals is at a strong level of risk.
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